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                明思宗朱由檢簡介 明朝亡國皇帝崇禎怎么死的?

                      明朝最后一個皇帝,明朝第十六位皇帝:明思宗朱由檢(1611年2月6日-1644年4月25日),明朝亡國之君。明光宗第五子,明熹宗異母弟,母為淑女劉氏。于1622年(天啟二年)年被冊封為信王。1627年-1644年在位,年號崇禎。即位后大力鏟除閹黨,并六下罪己詔,是位年輕有為的皇帝。在位期間農民起義猖獗,關外清朝勢大,已處于朝不保夕的地步。1644年,李自成軍攻破北京后于煤山自縊身亡,終年35歲,在位17年。廟號思宗,后改毅宗、懷宗。清朝上謚號守道敬儉寬文襄武體仁致孝莊烈愍皇帝,南明弘光帝上謚號紹天繹道剛明恪儉揆文奮武敦仁懋孝烈皇帝。葬于十三陵思陵。

                  明思宗,朱由檢,年號:崇禎,明代第十六位皇帝,光宗朱常洛之子,熹宗朱由校之弟。

                  崇禎皇帝,幼年被封為信王,熹宗皇帝駕崩之后,由于沒有子嗣,按照古代兄終弟及的說法,信王坐上了本不屬于自己的皇帝寶座。皇帝的位子本來是人人向往的,但是此時的大明江山已是千瘡百孔,病入膏肓,雖有明君能臣在世亦難扭轉其頹勢了。何況朱由檢自幼生長在深宮,既不了解官場的勾心斗角,派系之爭;更不了解戰場排兵布陣,殺伐攻略。但是毫無經驗的朱由檢,硬是憑著自己中興的決心,將大明江山延續了17年之久,也算是一個不小的奇跡了。

                  歷史上對崇禎皇帝的評價褒貶不一,現簡單記錄其生平事跡。熹宗駕崩之際,正是克魏集團活動最猖獗的時期,克氏、魏忠賢互為表里,禍亂后宮,把持朝政,不僅害死了熹宗皇帝,也將大明王朝推向了毀滅的深淵。

                  信王朱由檢自然了然于心,因此,在宣布信王即位之后,朱由檢由信王府搬入大內,竟不敢食用為他準備的膳食,硬是憑借自己從家里偷偷帶來的干糧度過了最危險的幾天,宮中的險惡可見一斑。

                  崇禎皇帝即位之初,雖然深惡魏忠賢的專權,但是畢竟自己羽翼未豐,不敢輕舉妄動,于是韜光隱晦,等待時機,正值巔峰的魏忠賢并沒有把這個孩子放在眼里,認為不過是和他哥哥熹宗一樣的年輕后生,不會有多大的作為,于是更加猖獗,甚至要求各地為他建立生祠,罪惡已經招然于世。

                  朝內朝外怨聲載道,崇禎皇帝抓準時機,先以迅雷之勢除掉了魏忠賢倚為左右手的崔呈秀,然后對魏忠賢的爪牙痛下殺手,使魏忠賢處于孤立無援的境地,然后一紙詔書,貶魏忠賢鳳陽守陵,魏忠賢自知罪惡深重,在途中上吊自盡了。崇禎皇帝談笑間鏟除了魏忠賢集團,曾一度使大明江山的中興成為了可能,但是隨后的一系列錯誤使得他最終沒有實現中興的夢想。

                  當時明朝最大的敵人還是東北的后金,即后來的滿清政權,此時清太祖努爾哈赤已經去世,太宗皇太極在位。雙方多次爆發戰爭,而戰爭的結果多是以明軍的潰敗告終,諾大的一個朝堂上竟找不出一個象樣的元帥,崇禎皇帝對此當然不能甘心,于是他想到了袁崇煥,這個被百姓稱為‘袁長城‘的人物。當初在寧遠城用大炮打傷清太祖努爾哈赤的,就是這個袁崇煥。由于閹黨的迫害,他被迫離職,這次被崇禎皇帝重新起用,自然躊躇滿志,希望通過自己的努力,恢復大明的江山。一經上任,他就把東北的防務布置的井井有條,使后金不敢窺盱寧錦一線。

                  但袁崇煥的敵人畢竟是蒸蒸日上的后金政權,是多謀善斷的皇太極,更重要的,袁崇換的主子是崇禎皇帝,心急、多疑是崇禎的致命弱點,這就決定了袁崇煥不可能有充分的時間去施展他的抱負,更可悲的是皇太極的一個小小的反間計,就毫不費力地致他于死地了。

                  皇太極繞過山海關,從京畿的北面越過長城,威脅北京,袁崇煥率部回京勤王,正當袁崇煥部開到北京城下的時候,清軍突然鬼使神差的出現了,給崇禎造成了假像,是袁崇煥部引清軍來攻城的。

                  因此,城上的守軍堅決不準城外的部隊進城,千里奔襲而來的袁軍此刻已是筋疲力盡,即不能進城休整,又要面對強大的八旗軍隊,但是袁軍還是成功的打退了清軍的進攻。是夜,皇太極派手下心腹將領在明軍俘虜面前大肆宣揚如何與袁崇煥約定獻城投降,然后故意放俘虜逃跑。

                  俘虜怎知是反間計,回城后一五一十地向崇禎皇帝作了匯報。本就多疑的崇禎將幾見事聯系到一起,便認定袁崇煥必是漢奸無疑,于是將袁崇煥誑進城內,打入大牢,并于數月后凌遲處死。從此,明朝失去了唯一的東北屏障,八旗軍隊得以馳騁東北大地如入無人之境。

                  明朝末年,出現了三日并舉的局面,一個,北京以崇禎帝為首的明政權,第二,沈陽以皇太極為首的清政權(天聰十年,皇太極改國號為清,改元崇德),第三,西北以李自成為首的大順政權。

                  說到李自成,農民軍起家,本在舅父老闖王高迎祥手下為將,舅父被俘就義之后,被公推為新闖王。明朝對農民軍戰績要遠遠好于對清軍的戰績,明軍的將帥如洪成疇、陳奇瑜、孫傳庭、盧象升、熊文燦都有對農民軍的輝煌勝利。

                  陳奇瑜曾將農民軍逼入車廂峽,險些讓李自成、張獻忠困死其中;孫傳庭潼關大敗農民軍,并活捉了老闖王高迎祥;熊文燦追得農民軍走投無路,紛紛投降,張獻忠、羅汝才(曹操)亦在其中;盧象升滁州大捷,農民軍尸橫遍野。更有大將左良玉、賀人龍、曹文詔、曹變蛟、高杰沖突左右,本來撲滅農民軍的星星之火不是沒有可能,但就是崇禎皇帝的性急,在關鍵時刻幫助了農民軍,明軍將帥稍有敗績,非死即貶,明朝的棟梁之才損失待盡,陳奇瑜被貶,熊文燦被斬,孫傳庭入獄,一個個將星的隕落,注定了明朝的滅亡。

                  李自成被熊文燦追得無處藏身,被迫躲進了商洛山中,當李自成再一次從山中走出來的時候,熊文燦已經成了冤死之鬼,李自成再次組成了自己的軍隊,吸收了李巖、宋獻策、牛金星等知識分子,洗去了農民軍固有的匪氣,一股天將降大任于斯的氣勢,目標直指紫禁城中的蹯龍寶座。

                  他占洛陽,斬福王,破襄陽,取武昌,一路奏凱,并在西安正式稱帝,國號大順。稱帝之后,李自成一路東進,僅在寧武受到沉重打擊,其他重鎮如宣大等,均傳檄而定。終于在崇禎十七年,焚燒了昌平明十二皇陵后,包圍了北京城。

                  崇禎皇帝即位之初雖然曾經一手產除了魏忠賢集團,但是他對朝中大臣的不信任,還是導致他走向了親信宦官的毀滅之路,明朝萬余人的龐大的閹人隊伍并沒有給崇禎帶來任何好運,而是慢慢的消磨著明王朝這個巨人的精血。直到作后一刻,也是把守各城門太監的臨陣叛變,徹底斷送了大明王朝的江山。

                  農民軍攻入京城之后,崇禎皇帝將皇子托付給了外戚周奎,田弘遇,下令周皇后(崇禎皇帝正宮皇后)、張太后(熹宗皇帝皇后,崇禎的皇嫂)自盡,并親手砍死了袁貴妃,砍傷了自己的女兒。然后匆匆逃到景山,在壽皇庭東側的一顆歪勃樹上自盡身亡,在對面陪伴他上吊的還有他的貼身太監王承恩。

                  崇禎皇帝不是一個荒淫的皇帝,也不是一個懶惰的皇帝,他對明朝中興的迫切心情,每一個讀過他事跡的人都能夠清楚的感覺到,但是歷史總是喜歡跟人開玩笑,他的祖父,哥哥,雖然荒唐,但是平安的渡過了一生,可是祖輩制造的苦果,去要由后輩人去品嘗,面對著這樣一個爛攤子,我們又能要求年輕的崇禎皇帝什么呢?


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